steveBAZ had this one
Turbocharger Removal & Rebuild
This article was written to assist those interested in removing and rebuilding the turbocharger on the Early Model Power Stroke Diesels. The article should give those people willing to undertake this task some insight into what can be expected and what pitfalls to avoid.
In addition to Standard, Metric, Wrenches and Sockets (Deep and Standard Length), and the usual things like a Big #*&%$ Hammer and a pry bar, you will also need the following TOP QUALITY special tools:
1. 10mm & 13mm 3/8" drive SWIVEL sockets.
2. 10" 3/8" drive flexible extension.
3. Misc. short and long 3/8" drive extensions.
4. 8mm 12 point 3/8" drive socket and 8mm 12 point wrench
5. 15mm 12 point STUBBY wrench, (a 15mm crows foot would be really handy, too.)
6. 6 point 10mm 1/4" drive socket.
7. 1/4" universal joint, and misc. short and long 1/4" extensions.
8. 8" 1/4" drive flexible extension.
9. 8mm, 10mm, 12mm 13mm ratcheting box wrenches, and if you get the stubby wrenches, that's even better, and the kind that look like a regular combination wrench with a black insert in the box end (not the kind made from two stamped pieces) would be really useful.
11. Telescoping mirror
12. WD-40 and Anti-Seize Compound.
13. Liquid Wrench, Choke and Carburetor Cleaner
14. Hi-Temp RTV silicone if you are going to disassemble the turbo.
15. Patience and Band-Aids for skinned knuckles.
Turbo: the entire turbocharger assembly.
Impeller: the intake/air compressor wheel or fan.
Turbine: the wheel or fan driven by the exhaust.
Volute: the snail-shell shaped part of the turbine and impeller housings. (Also referred to as the Diffuser.)
Vanes: the blades on the turbine and impeller wheels.
For more about turbochargers, see "Turbochargers" by Hugh Macinnes, published by HP Books.
1. Spray everything down with Liquid Wrench or Shiner Bock several times the day before you begin.
2.The factory service manual recommends loosening the two lower bolts, and removing the two upper bolts on the two pipes that run from the exhaust manifolds to the collector behind the turbocharger. This is NOT necessary! However, if you are installing a new or different turbocharger, and things do not line up properly, you will need to loosen the upper bolts to allow some wiggle room. To get to these, you need the 10mm swivel socket on 18"-24" extensions. Jacking up the cab under the door hinge area will give you a bit of clearance. On the passenger's side, unbolting the fender-well liner slightly helps, and I had to bend back the lip on the firewall with the pry-bar in order to move the down pipe out of the way.
3. I did not remove the hood, but you may want to consider it. The job would be a lot more comfortable, and possibly easier without it.
4. Remove the black cover on top of the engine, the one that says "Turbo Diesel.”
5. Remove all ducting--black, aluminum and orange between air filter box and turbo compressor inlet.
6. Remove the breather element from the driver's side valve cover. If the Philips head screws have stripped, replace them with hex or Allen head bolts that have O-rings under the heads.
7. Remove "Y" pipe and orange tubing at turbo compressor outlet and intake manifold.
8. Stuff clean towels into all holes to keep dirt out of the engine and turbo.
9. Remove the "V" band clamp that connects the top of the down pipe to the EBPV. (Exhaust Back Pressure Valve, which is between the turbo and down pipe.) The nut is 7/16"; this is the only non-metric fastener.
10. Unbolt the bottom of the Down Pipe where it goes into the catalytic converter. This allows the DP to slide down slightly, giving more room to remove the EBPV
11. Unbolt the EBPV from the turbine outlet. It is held on with three 8mm, 12point bolts. Depending on how far the Down Pipe moved in step 10, you may be able to get a ratchet and socket on these 3 bolts. If not: To get the back bolt, put the 8mm 12pt wrench on it and then hit the wrench with the Big &*^% Hammer using a long drift or bar. Removing the EBPV allows access to the pedestal bolt, and the collector flange bolt.
12. Disconnect the EBPV valve mechanism from the actuator rod by sliding the sleeve on the end of the rod inward. It is a ball and socket setup.
13. Remove the two forward bolts on the turbo pedestal (10mm hex bolts). Use the 10mm, 6 point, 1/4" drive socket, with the universal joint, and a short extension to get the 2 rear pedestal bolts. The driver side bolt on the rear is behind the indentation on the back of the cylinder for the EBPV actuator piston. Do not confuse it with another easy-to-see nut on a stud located on the pedestal in front of the cylinder. The bolt referenced can barely be seen with the mirror. From the passenger's side, put your left index finger around the rear, and if you have skinny hands/long fingers, you can just barely touch the bolt head to guide the socket on.
14. Using the 13mm swivel socket and a long extension, remove the two 13mm bolts that connect the turbine inlet to the exhaust collector. Use the 15mm stubby or crow’s foot to remove the nuts on the studs for the lower part. Use the pry bar to leverage the stubby to break the nuts loose. I had to cut my Craftsman 15mm combination wrench in half, because I tried to get out of buying the stubby.
15. Disconnect the plug that goes to the EBPV solenoid, and pull the turbo up and out.
16. Disassembly of the turbo is straightforward. Start by removing the 8mm, 12pt bolts on the compressor, and work your way in from there. Unscrew the compressor impeller wheel from the shaft using an 18mm socket on the turbine, and a 16mm socket on the impeller. Remove the four 8mm, 12pt bolts that are under the compressor impeller. They bolt the diffuser to the bearing housing, once removed the diffuser will come off. During this step, make sure that the turbo is positioned as shown in the photo. When you remove the diffuser, do so slowly, and note the exact position and arrangement of the seal holder and the thrust plate. It is possible to re-assemble them in several positions, but only one is right, and the wrong positions will ruin the turbo. After removing the seal holder and thrust plate, the bearings and spacer should slide right out. Next, remove the four 8mm, 12pt bolts that hold the turbine housing to the bearing housing. Remove the turbine housing then, slide the turbine shaft out of the bearing housing. If the shaft seems "stuck,” gently tap the compressor end of the shaft to free it. (It is stuck because the turbine seal is holding it back) Now remove the four 10mm hex bolts on the bottom of the pedestal that connects it to the bearing housing. There is a cup-shaped sheet metal "cover" on the turbine side of the bearing housing (not visible in the photo). Carefully pry this off, clean the carbon and coked oil out of it, and out of the bearing housing. While cleaning, pay special attention to the groove where the turbine-end oil seal goes.
17. Clean everything with Choke and Carburetor cleaner. If the turbine has carbon on it, you can GENTLY clean it with a small BRASS wire brush. Do not use a steel brush or a scraper. Tiny scratches cause stress riser points, which can possibly lead to turbine failure. (Remember that the turbo spins up to 125,000 rpm.) Clean any carbon off the shaft with #600 emery cloth. Remove carbon deposits and rust from cast iron mating surfaces with #220-330 emery. If either the turbine or impeller has cracks or bent vanes, it must be replaced. If the turbine self-destructs, it only hurts your pride, because the fragments go out the exhaust, but if the impeller flies apart, all the little fragments go right into the engine.
18. My original impeller had the tips broken off the taller vanes. This was probably caused by the impeller reversing direction from a massive intake manifold backfire. (Likely due to feeding too much propane at too low an rpm.) This backfire even cracked the air filter box. I did not have money to replace the impeller, so I evenly filed the tips to a smooth finish, and then re-installed it. (A few weeks later, I determined that my engine was blown, and I replaced the impeller during the rebuild.)
19. If you want to replace the turbocharger's bearings and seals, the kit costs about $225.00. The kit I purchased was made by World Products, part # 7-A-2058, for a Garret TP-38 turbocharger. I was able to get it right off the shelf from Fuel Injection Service, Pharr, TX. 956-787-6421. I'm sure DIS has them in stock too. After 234,000 miles, the original turbine seal showed signs of leakage, but the bearings were still tight. A symptom of turbine seal wear is thick white smoke at (cold) engine start up, which diminishes as soon as the turbo gets hot. Thick white smoke on sudden deceleration is another symptom of turbine seal failure.
20. The turbocharger rebuild kit contains:
o 2 bearings (actually bronze bushings),
o A bearing spacer,
o Turbine and impeller seals, which are similar to piston rings but the diameter of a dime
o The housing or holder for the impeller seal
o Gasket that is installed between the bearing housing and impeller housing
o Gasket that is installed between the turbine inlet and exhaust collector flange
o 4 bolts, I used them to replace the ones that go under the impeller. This allowed me to replace some old bolts that were rusted.
o The kit also came with 2 O-rings that did not correspond to my turbo.
21. While installing the impeller seal/thrust plate, pay careful attention to the thrust plate. (The thrust plate is the "U" shaped plate.) On one side is a wide groove with tiny holes drilled through it; the other side is smooth. This groove must face to the inside, or towards the bearing housing where it mates to an oil supply hole. If this is installed backwards, oil flow to the seal will be cut off, and your turbo will die a very sudden and expensive death.
22. The kit does not include O-rings to go between the turbo and pedestal or between the pedestal and block, but any hardware store will have them. Do not reuse the old ones, unless you like the idea of going through all this again because of four 29-cent O-rings.
23. Use anti-seize on everything except the 4 bolts under the impeller; use 242 (med) thread locker on those. Coat the O-rings with engine oil, and insure the bearings and seals are lubed during assembly.
24. Seal the two halves of the compressor with RTV. Apply RTV to the backing plate half only, not the impeller housing (volute), this way the excess is squeezed to the outside.
25. Replace bolts that show any sign of damage to the threads or heads. If you cannot find 8mm 12point bolts, use Allen/socket head cap screws. 6 point, Hex head bolts cannot be used as there is not enough space to allow a socket or wrench to fit on them!
26. When you go to re-install the turbo, place the 2 rear pedestal bolts in their holes first. Stuff a bit of towel inside the pedestal bolt holes to keep them from sliding down. If the bolts stick out, they will hang up in the oil holes on the engine block or knock the O-rings out of place. Before installing the turbo, place a 4x8" piece of plastic, cut from a gallon jug, over the O-rings. This will stop them from becoming knocked out of place. After the turbo is on the 4 bolts of the collector, slide the plastic out before tightening the bolts down.
I removed my turbocharger because of a serious oil leak from the EBPV actuator. I believe that the rumors of fixing this type of leak with "50-cent seals" are totally false. I was unable to locate a seal that was even remotely like the one on the piston plunger. Ford does not sell these seals either; they only sell complete pedestals for around $500.00. Rebuilt pedestals from International are less expensive. The actuator cylinder is aluminum, and the seal is a very hard gray material. It is almost like plastic, and it will wear the bore out before it wears out. This might be why Ford decided not to make rebuild parts available. The bore of my cylinder was severely scored, so I polished the gouges out with #600 emery cloth. However, after reinstalling the actuator, it leaked worse than it did before. If yours is leaking, my suggestion is to remove and discard the piston and rod, tap the hole to 1/4" pipe thread, and plug it up. I tried using a manual choke cable to actuate the EBPV, but it was not stiff enough. However, a transmission shift cable, such as those made by B&M, should work really well.
I've been using my EBPV as an engine exhaust brake
for the last year/36 k miles. I have it wired in so that it either functions normally (only during warm-up), only when I apply the brakes, or on full time. While this has greatly increased the number of cycles for the EBPV piston, I do not believe that this was responsible for the leak. Rather, I suspect that dirt from washing the engine with a high-pressure car wash entered into the cylinder around the rod and scored the cylinder.