Emissions and EPA : Educational - Diesel Truck Forum - TheDieselGarage.com
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post #1 of 27 (permalink) Old 01-31-2014, 10:18 AM Thread Starter
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Emissions and EPA : Educational

I figure since we are needed to design engines and catalytic exhaust for emissions purposes regardless of brand, we need a thread dedicated to the subject. I am hoping to and if anyone would like to help out to build an educational thread on emissions and CARB and EPA etc. Its around us everyday, we should understand whats not just at the national level but local levels in our neighborhoods. DEF, DPF, catalytic converters, EGR the list goes on! Granted, some things can be done without, we still should understand the purposes and such.

Manufacturers Emissions Control Association
meca.com

Environmental Protection Agency
EPA

California Air Research Board
CARB or ARB

Some thread links to start it out
https://www.thedieselgarage.com/forum...=emissions+EPA

https://www.thedieselgarage.com/forum...=emissions+EPA

Again, anyone can add things. This thread will entail anything involving an emissions purpose due to regulation.

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post #2 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-01-2014, 12:47 AM Thread Starter
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This website has things listed from across the world that I came across. Not just speaking of the equipment technology but involves fuels and the oils we use in the engine, they are changed as well as emissions regulations have changed which is why we see Ci-4 and the CJ-4 classifications for the more recent engine oils.
Dieselnet.com

Corporate Average Fuel Economy
CAFE

Link to some good info in another thread here involving emissions equipment on light duty trucks which I snapped some pictures of along with other things to read.

https://www.thedieselgarage.com/forum...=113437&page=2

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post #3 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-01-2014, 12:53 AM Thread Starter
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As far as the newer DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) you will see it at gas stations near the diesel fuel pumps usually. Gas engines have no use for this setup. IMO I believe the probability of keeping a DEF pump clean all the time is going to be difficult due to the trucks are usually dirty from driving or whatever they may be hauling. Not to mention if the driver or other passenger is aware when filling DEF is important to keep clean. Costly repairs can follow if care is not taken when servicing the DEF when the time comes.

Maintaining your vehicle, work or regular driver should be on a list of things important.

Numerous companies are making the DEF product, remind you in Europe (if you reside in the USA or elsewhere) the product is titled Adblue.

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Last edited by Fahlin Racing; 02-01-2014 at 12:55 AM.
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post #4 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-05-2014, 11:41 PM Thread Starter
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DEF continued

Here is a video explaining what Cummins has been using.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQHvi2Lgnac

For those wondering, I have found each Selective Catalyst Reduction system used between engine manufacturers may be different. So when searching you could be specific as follows (or similar) when I was looking at work earlier. Thus far I have not seen any DEF containers come in anything less than 2.5 galllons.

Caterpillar SCR
Perkins SCR
Mack SCR
Volvo SCR
Detroit Diesel BlueTec (Daimler too)
Cummins SCR
Peugeot SCR
Mercedes (same as Detroit/Daimler)
Isuzu SCR
Navistar SCR
Hino SCR

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post #5 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-06-2014, 12:12 AM Thread Starter
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DEF continued

Found this that was posted up in April of last year regarding Cummins EcoLit UL2 system. And more below from the Cummins website.
http://www.discoverdef.com/news/2013...dosing-system/

http://cumminsemissionsolutions.com/...it_Airless_UL2

Standards that are in existence.
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Tier 4

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post #6 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-09-2014, 01:05 PM Thread Starter
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Caterpillar
Advanced Combustion Emissions Reduction Technology
ACERT

Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EGR

Fleetowner.com article
SCR or EGR

Quote:
“Basically, NOx formation is a function of the high combustion temperature in diesel engines,” he explains. “The hotter the combustion temperature, exponentially more NOx is created from disassociated oxygen and nitrogen molecules binding together. So if you want to reduce the NOx that is formed during combustion, you need to lower the peak combustion temperature by reducing the amount of oxygen molecules available. ”
Quote:
TRADE-OFFS

“That is what EGR does,” Ciatti says. “It deprives the combustion event of some of its oxygen by introducing cooled exhaust gas, which is lower in oxygen, into the intake system, thereby reducing the combustion temperature and lowering NOx production....
http://fleetowner.com/management/feature/scr_egr_0701

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post #7 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-09-2014, 01:31 PM Thread Starter
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Regeneration presentation

Found this on youtube, 25mins in length. Enjoy.

http://youtu.be/fNO-oUHmKXU

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post #8 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-15-2014, 10:25 PM Thread Starter
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Found this picture thread for Caterpillar Tier IV engines in Ag equipment that Dodgefarmer started. Pretty good size of conglomeration of parts.
https://www.thedieselgarage.com/forum...57#post1236257

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post #9 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-22-2014, 10:14 AM Thread Starter
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From the Fleetowner.com article linked earlier
Quote:
THE COMPLIANCE QUESTION

It is the “have to use it” issue that is the EPA's chief concern when it comes to SCR as a 2010 compliance solution (www.epa.gov). “Engine makers and OEMs using EGR and SCR will both demonstrate compliance with the 2010 standard in the same way — they must both run certain required emissions tests and submit the data gathered for certification,” says Byron Bunker, center director for the EPA Heavy-Duty On-Highway Center. “What is special about SCR is the required urea. We want to make sure that the certifiers are doing all they can to assure that end users of the SCR system will do what they should do to keep it operating properly.

“There are lots of things manufacturers can do to make a big difference,” he continues. “They can do more than anyone else to make sure that urea is readily available, for instance, just like any other replacement fluids required for a vehicle, such as oil or coolant. They can also use sensors and other onboard systems to make sure the driver knows when the urea tank needs to be refilled and that the system is durable and not easy to disable.”

In March 2007, the EPA issued guidance on the emissions certification procedures the agency wants to see for on-road diesel vehicles. Specifically, the agency outlined five elements it expects manufacturers to provide in order to have an SCR system certified as meeting 2010 requirements: an escalating driver warning system to alert the driver to the fact that the urea tank is approaching empty; a driver “inducement” (some means to ensure that the driver will not operate the vehicle without the reducing agent); a NOx or urea sensor or some other mechanism to prevent the use of an incorrect or diluted reducing agent; plus a durable and tamper-resistant design.

Since EGR systems require no action on the part of the vehicle operator and are much less prone to tampering or misuse, EPA concerns about compliance are correspondingly smaller, too. “Engine makers relying on EGR to meet 2010 NOx levels may be able to calculate NOx output rather than directly measuring NOx in the exhaust stream,” says Gary Parsons, global OEM and industry liaison manager for Chevron Oronite Co. LLC (www.chevron.com). “For instance, based on engine mapping, they may be able to use the angle of the EGR flow valve and known EGR flow rates as an indirect indicator of the NOx levels being produced and simply map the NOx levels created in the engine under various conditions.”

In other words, SCR systems will need some way of directly measuring NOx levels at the tailpipe, while EGR can assume tailpipe NOx emissions based on engine operating parameters.

When it comes to SCR and EGR, it is not strictly accurate to talk in terms of either/or, adds Parsons. “Practically speaking, SCR is not going to entirely replace EGR come 2010,” he says. “Even engine makers using SCR will probably have to use some level of EGR to reach the extremely low NOx levels required.”

WHAT NEXT?

Neither EGR nor SCR may be the end of the emissions reduction road. Although the EPA says it has no plans for regulations past 2010, there are other emissions reduction technologies and other approaches being explored today.

“Right now we have no plans for regulations past 2010,” says Bunker. “After all, we don't have far to go past 2010 to get to zero NOx emissions. That last little bit tends to be the most expensive to get so we have to weigh the cost to the benefit. Technologies will also continue to get better. We spend a lot of time ourselves investigating new technologies, especially combustion technologies.”

“Everybody is working on cleaner diesel combustion solutions,” agrees Parsons, “especially on what is called Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition [HCCI] where air and fuel are premixed in the cylinder, more like a gasoline engine, but still ignited by compression as in a diesel engine.

“As a fuel, gasoline is very difficult to spontaneously ignite, which is why gasoline engines require a spark plug for ignition,” Parsons explains. “Octane is the term that is used to describe gasoline's ability to resist ignition. Diesel fuel, on the other hand, is less flammable than gasoline but much easier to ignite under the proper conditions, which is why diesel engines use compression rather than a spark plug for igniting the fuel.

“Cetane is the term used to describe diesel's ability to spontaneously ignite under pressure,” Parsons continues. “The goal with HCCI and partial HCCI is to create a better combustion technology plus a fuel with the right balance of octane and cetane, something that will ignite uniformly and at exactly the right moment for optimum, lower-temperature combustion, with enough heat to burn cleanly but at a low enough temperature to avoid producing NOx.”

HCCI is not the only alternative approach to emissions reduction that is being explored. So-called “NOx Absorbers” (or “Lean NOx Traps” or “Hydrocarbon-SCR Systems”) use hydrocarbons rather than ammonia to reduce NOx. They are already being used in some light-duty engines and have the advantage of not requiring an additional reductant like urea.

Today's Dodge Ram pick-up trucks equipped with Cummins engines, for instance, use Lean NOx Traps and are already able to meet 2010 emissions standards. However, NOx Traps currently rely on catalysts made with expensive precious metals to get the job done and have not yet been proven effective in heavy-duty applications.

Honda Motor Co. Ltd. has announced that it will introduce a diesel that meets 2010 standards via aftertreatment — and without the need for urea. Instead, Honda's system creates its own ammonia from diesel fuel and uses it to convert NOx into nitrogen and water during normal engine operation. Since diesel fuel is used in the NOx after-treatment system, however, there is a slight fuel economy penalty in these systems.

Canadian company NxtGen (www.nxtgen.com) says it is commercializing a system that can omit the need for SCR technology and also clean the diesel particulate filters introduced in 2007. The system makes use of a non-catalytic “synthesis gas” generator that converts diesel fuel, mixed with about 2% of the airflow from the exhaust manifold, into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The resulting gaseous mixture can be pumped into the particulate filter and NOx absorber to regenerate them.

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post #10 of 27 (permalink) Old 02-22-2014, 10:18 AM Thread Starter
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More from the same article on Fleetowner.com, for those wondering there is a posted shelf life for the DEF/UREA and a temperature window the product needs to be stored in.
Quote:
SCR and EGR: Pros and cons

While EGR and SCR are both proven paths to reducing NOx emissions, there are trade-offs associated with each approach.

SCR advantages:

Permits more optimized combustion
Can enable better fuel efficiency/power
No concerns about engine durability/oil degradation
End product is nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide
Urea not classified as hazardous to health

SCR trade-offs:

System adds weight
Adequate urea supply infrastructure not yet in place
Purchasing urea is additional cost
System, including sensors and other compliance-related devices, must be maintained
Urea freezes at 12 deg. F., so may require heated storage
Most effective at constant speeds and high loads; least in stop/start
Urea (also in some fertilizers) is a water pollutant/harmful to fish

Cooled EGR advantages:

Does not require additional onboard hardware
Does not require the use of an additional fluid
No loss of payload
No impact on service intervals
No driver intervention necessary for compliance

Cooled EGR trade-offs:

Increases heat rejection, creating need for greater cooling capacity
Decreases power density, fuel efficiency
Potential engine durability and oil degradation issues
Less combustion efficiency produces increased particulate matter, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide

Sources: Chevron Oronite Co. LLC; Scania; VDI, Germany, “Market Overview of Exhaust Gas Treatment Solutions for Diesel Engines in Commercial Vehicles for Meeting Current and Upcoming Emission Legislation in the EU”; Volvo Trucks NA, “SCR: For EPA ‘10”; Environmental Protection Agency Heavy-Duty On-Highway Center, Argonne National Laboratory

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