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post #1 of 9 (permalink) Old 02-02-2010, 03:43 PM Thread Starter
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A better diesel piston

Current issue of Automotive design and production has an article on Federal Mogul developing a better diesel piston. Able to withstand higher heat which allows for higher pressures resulting in better fuel economy.

Article found here > http://www.autofieldguide.com/articles/011002.html

a small snipet..

Quote:
The implications of improving the fuel economy in diesel engines while, at the same time, reducing CO2 emissions, are rather significant, particularly as vehicle manufacturers are reducing the size of their diesels for both truck and car applications. According to Frank Doernenburg, director of Technology, Pistons and Pins, for Federal-Mogul Corp. (federalmogul.com), who works out of the company's facility in Nurnberg, Germany, where considerable research is conducted on diesel technology, about five years ago they began to work on addressing the issue of increasing engine pressures that are a consequence of the drive for efficiency.

Realize that while gasoline engines are spark-ignition, meaning that the fuel in the cylinders is ignited by spark plugs, diesel engines are compression-ignition, meaning that the pressure—and consequent heat—is such that the fuel explodes without the spark.

So, Doernenburg explains, whereas a typical gasoline engine may have an internal pressure of 100 bar and a turbocharged six-cylinder gasoline engine may have a pressure of 120 to 150 bar, "a diesel engine of five or six years ago had a 150- to 160-bar pressure. Now diesels have 180- to 190-bar pressure." The result of this is higher specific output. "Higher specific output means better fuel consumption," Doernenburg says, so companies are producing engines that produce 75 kW per liter of displacement (about 100 hp). One company Federal-Mogul is working with is developing a three-liter diesel that produces 300 kW (~402 hp).

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post #2 of 9 (permalink) Old 02-02-2010, 08:23 PM
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Interesting article. I am not sure how far that will get them though. They mention 400HP from a 3L engine. That translates roughly to 800HP for the 6L Ford, as an example. Keep in mind they are talking crank HP, not wheel. 800 crank HP is certainly a lot more than the stock 325 for the 6.0, but several guys around here have made 800 crank HP and not changed pistons. Although I don't know how reliable that power level is. The article points out that durability/piston life is key. So maybe all of this means we can have 800 crank HP in a reliable form (assuming other weak links are addressed).

Here is a thought: if the pistons are made to withstand higher temps and the engineers crank up the volume and raise temps, what does that do to NOx emissions? Do we need to tow a DEF tank around with us?

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post #3 of 9 (permalink) Old 02-03-2010, 03:11 PM
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It would sound more correct if they used the word ignite instead of 'explodes' for combustion. Since the pistons are becoming for resistant to heat, then I wonder how the current rings will be manufactured to adapt to the higher heat in an everyday driven vehicle.

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what does that do to NOx emissions? Do we need to tow a DEF tank around with us?
If I recall correctly back in school, one the reasons for high NOx was from high injection pressures. This preempted the idea of lower pressure in correlation with muiltiple fuel injection points during the power-stroke.

I do not have enough time to read that entire article today but those are my thoughts at the present moment. Very interesting innovation

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post #4 of 9 (permalink) Old 04-01-2010, 01:10 PM
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Russ, what are your throughts on this?

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post #5 of 9 (permalink) Old 04-01-2010, 05:12 PM
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Combustion TEMPERATURE is the cause of NOx increases - retarding the cam was the first solution, EGR followed and lowering the compression ratio was a little later.

Multi shot injection helps so maybe the CR will go back up.

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post #6 of 9 (permalink) Old 04-02-2010, 01:11 PM
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Yes, I agree temperature plays a role in NOx emissions. If you retard the cam enough or if the cam can not be adjusted without hitting the pistons, lowering the compression would be the next step. But there still needs to be optimum fuel droplet size or we will just choke our engines with hydrocarbons from not burning everything. Now high pressures tend to produce the better atomization, but again, you need those correct diameter injector nosel holes.

The question is, does this mean we increase the amount of heat produced by combustion in the same injection time? or will we be seeing a relatively same temperature from the burn and have it a small amount longer in burn-duration?

At some point on the power stroke there is a position ATDC that even if we maintain a certain temperature (that these pistons can endure) the high cylinder pressure itself is no longer usable because the piston is too far down in the hole and its still burning. I think that would be a waste of fuel.

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post #7 of 9 (permalink) Old 04-02-2010, 04:42 PM
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The ceramic diesel engine project in Japan several years ago used high operating temperatures and compression ratios for impressive results. Add multishot injection and the pressures are better controlled with peak cylinder pressures delayed to 30 deg ATDC.

Texas A&M built a 4 cyl 800 hp diesel of ceramic.

Smokies 84 mpg 1600 Ford Fiesta used 400 F intake temperature on gas. He published in Circle Track magazine to kill patents so that any one could build one.

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post #8 of 9 (permalink) Old 04-02-2010, 11:58 PM
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Anything that increases Combustion Temperatures will generally also increase NOx emissions. Things that increase CT, all else the same: higher IAT, higher CR, higher boost pressure, increased RPM, more fuel, advanced timing.

You can very effectively manage fuel delivery with the use of more nozzle holes, but this is an expensive option. Making the nozzle holes larger increases soot (pm) levels and can also have a negative affect on EGTs/NOx. Making more of the same, or even smaller, holes can be an effective tool to manage CT and CP. Obviously there is a practicle limit to how many holes you can have, before they merge into one.

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post #9 of 9 (permalink) Old 04-03-2010, 01:29 PM
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That may be, engineering can go many different ways Keydl. Smokey's Hot Vapor engine has a cooler induction temperature (but still heated by the coolant) before the "homogenizer" (which is heated even more by the exhuast gases themselves) then you have a temperature above the vaporization point of gasoline which is 436 degrees F. If it were to be 400 degrees only, the fuel would not be fully evaporated into a gaseous state.

The hot vapor engine is a completely different animal than normal gasoline & diesel engines as far as fuel atomization is concerned.

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